Feeding Natural Products.

       The dog should be fed from a bowl placed on a stand otherwise the dog would have a bad posture, highly-formed rear part and possibly weak pasterns on the forelegs. The height of the stand is to be adjusted with the growth of the dog. The bowl should be at chest level or slightly higher so that the dog lowered its muzzle in it only. It is better to have two bowls: one for feed and one for water. Feed should not be cold or warm. Of a room temperature only.
       Do not forget to add mineral supplements.
       Now there are a lot of them on the market. Consult the club, breeder or vet recommended by the breeder – they will tell you what supplement to choose.

 Svetlana Kharchenko
Veterinarian, the owner of the "Harmis" kennel.
Is it possible to feed Great Dane and Dachshund the same?
Rations Of Natural Feed.

                                                       I. Feed quality.
        High quality feed! Do not use sour, mouldy, rancid ones. Do not feed dogs with the meat of fallen or killed in moribund state animals, seriously ill ones. (One can check the meat by boiling it. If the broth is clear and you enjoy eating a bowl of it and the meat as well, then it is benign for sure).

                                           II. How many times to feed?

Age

Meals Per Day

1-2 months

5-6 feeding

2-6 months

4 feeding

6 months-1year

3 feeding

From 1 year and older

Depending on physiological state and

physical loads – 2-3

       Two meals a day is offered to fine plump, active, brisk dogs of moderate physical activity, leading "sofa life." One hundred percent ration is divided as follows: 40% is given in the morning (afternoon), 60% in the evening.

morning

15%

20%

30%

afternoon

25%

30%

30%

evening

60%

50%

40%

       Three meals a day is recommended for dogs with high physical activity (protection of the cottage area, athletic exercises, hunting, etc.), pregnant and lactating (nursing) bitches and male dogs during their intensive use in mating. Also three meals a day is recommended for weakened, recovering and elderly dogs.

                                                      III. What to feed with?
      1. Meat and offal.
      a) Meat – beef with the veins, membranes, streaks but no large pieces of fat (bigger than 1 cm). Meat contains fat in the form of small inclusions which you do not need to cut off.
      Raw meat is given chopped in 2-3 cm pieces (very healthy!); for animals with digestion problems (if raw beef causes diarrhea) the meat can be boiled for a while.
      b) Meat trimming (obvious pieces of fat removed) – raw.
      c) offal – liver, kidneys, heart, lung, udder – boiled. Tripe is given chopped into pieces, fat removed, raw. (Pay particular attention to the freshness of the tripe – it is a fast perishable product. It should smell of hay, cow, may have some specific odor but must not stink.) You can also use ears, lips, trachea and tails. Meat and offal can be given daily.
       2. Sea Fish.
       a) boiled, peeled from the bone, mixed with cereals and vegetables (hake, cod, haddock, pollock, saffron cod)
       b) raw, chopped in 2-3 cm pieces (capelin, sprat). Do not add vegetables and cereals to this fish but you can sprinkle it lightly with vegetable oil. (If the puppy from its childhood has not accustomed to raw fish teach a dog to this type of feed gradually. Start with boiled fish adding a bit of raw one. Gradually reduce the part of boiled fish and increase the share of raw one and within a month completely transfer animal to raw fish). Give the fish 1-3 times a week.
       3. Poultry – chicken or turkey (goose, duck, are not used because of the large content of fat). Turkey is preferable. The bird is given boiled, peeled from the bones. It is good to mix it with cereals and vegetables. The caloric content is 1.5 times higher than in meat (see below). Give it 1-3 times a week.
       4. Milk and milk products.
     a) Milk and cereals based on milk are useful products especially for puppies, pregnant and lactating bitches. If an adult dog digests it well the milk can be given during the whole dog’s lifetime.
     b) Cottage cheese, plain yogurt, sour milk, skim milk. You can use for all ages and include in the daily diet.
      5. Vegetables, fruits.
     They are useful because of the content of vitamins and fiber. Improve intestinal peristalsis. You can give them on a daily basis. Their part of the diet is from 5 to 15%. Use lettuce, spinach, parsley, cabbage, carrots, pumpkin, zucchini. Potatoes are poorly digested (complicated starchy food) but occasionally a slice of raw potato is good for the stomach.
      Beets are sometimes used in raw form (1-2 tablespoons, chopped). It has beneficial effects on the liver. But it has a strong laxative effect. You can give boiled beets but carefully.
      Do not give the beans – they cause severe flatulence. For the same reason cabbage is being given in small quantities.
      In spring time it is useful to give goutweed, nettles (scalded before use), dandelion leaves (previously soaked in salted water for 20-30 minutes to remove bitterness).
     Fruits – apples, pears, apricots, melon, watermelon and grapes. Citrus fruits and strawberries are permitted but with caution (possible allergic reaction).
      6. Grains. Usually rice, buckwheat, oat or wheat cereals are used. Other grains (maize, millet, barley) are digested worse. (Be aware – it is scientifically proved – that with an excess of calories entering the body fat is deposited, primarily in the decomposition of carbohydrates. That means that an excess of grains leads to obesity).
     7. In addition the nutrition of dogs consists of eggs (it is better to cook a soft-boiled ones) – one or two eggs a week, cheese (small pieces of 20-30 g, as a delicacy and not every day), crisps, not sweet biscuits and mineral additives.

                                                  IV. What not to feed with?
     Sweet, spicy, fatty, fried, smoked, salted (although we add a little bit of salt to the feed).
Be careful with liver, porridge, milk, veal – these products often cause diarrhea.
     Buckwheat, chicken, carrots, broth, an excess of animal protein (meat) – all this often causes allergic reactions. For elderly dogs limit fish, meat, salt (a gentle attitude toward the kidneys).

                                    V. What diet and how much should get dog?
      There are two approaches:
     1) "The eye estimation". If the dog is not skinny and not obese but of a normal nutritional status, active, brisk, lively, gets varied diet means that the feeding is balanced and it is enough for your pet.
     2) The exact calculation of the necessary calories for the weight of your animal (per day) and their content as well as the quantity of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in different kinds of feed. In the calculation of the diet this way the physiological and physical loads on the dog, the type of nervous system, environment temperature, possible diseases should be taken into account. Also, the calculation of the diet is made on the true weight of the dog: if the dog is obese then extra pounds of fat are to be deducted, if skinny – then add the necessary weight.

 VI. If you’ve made your pet's diet calculation taking into account all possible loads but it is still thin the reasons may be as follows:
      1) Insufficient intake of plastic substances (count the calories of the diet again carefully)
       2) Poor absorption of feed related to inadequate release of enzymes due to diseases of the digestive system (chronic gastritis, enteritis, enterocolitis). In this case it is necessary to make the biochemical analysis of fecal for digestibility of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
       3) Chronic disease – endometritis, pyelonephritis, malignant tumors, leukemia – they exhaust the organism taking over the valuable calories (you need to do a urine test, ultrasound test of the abdominal cavity, clinical and biochemical analysis of blood)
      4) Chronic kidney disease (nephrosis, glomerulonephritis) – when a lot of protein exudes with urine (you need to ultrasound test of the kidneys and urine analysis)
      5) Chronic liver and pancreatic diseases and connected with them frequent diarrhea and vomiting (need blood biochemistry, ultrasound test of the abdominal cavity)
      6) Diseases of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) – need to do a blood test for thyroid hormones.
The other extreme is obesity. The main causes: overfeeding starchy foods (cereals), poor exercise, hypothyroidism, diabetes, castration, impaired fat metabolism, hyperadrenocorticism.

 VII. How many calories your animal needs, how many calories are in the products, how to prepare the proper diet?

Table 1.The composition and nutritional value of the main components of the dogs’ diet.

Product

Content in 100 g of the product

protein, g

fat, g

carbohydrates, g

energy, kCal

Beef

20,2

7,0

-

144 -150

Horse meat

20,9

4,1

-

120

Mutton

21

9

-

170

Rabbit

21

13

-

208

Poultry

18

20

-

268

Liver

18,3

3,2

5,2

103

Lungs

15,2

3,5

2

91,7

Beef heart

15

3

3

91

Bone meal

47,7

8,5

2,9

280

Milk

2,8

3,2

4,7

58

Cottage cheese (not fat)

18

0,6

1,5

86

Fish meal

55

3

-

252

Chicken eggs

12,7

11,5

0,7

157

Rye bread

8,8

1,4

73,4

323

White bread

7,9

1

48,5

226

Oat grain

11,9

5,8

65,4

345

Rice

7

0,6

77,2

322

Buckwheat grain

12,6

2,6

68

344

Fresh cabbage

1,8

-

5,4

28

Carrot

1,7

0,1

7

33

Beet

1,7

-

10

48

Lettuce

1,5

-

2,2

15

Spinach

2,9

-

2,3

22

 The content of nutrients and energy in the grains stated per 100 g dry cereal.
Table 2. Dogs’ need in energy.

Product

Content in 100 g of the product

protein, g

fat, g

carbohydrates, g

energy, kCal

Beef

20,2

7,0

-

144 -150

Horse meat

20,9

4,1

-

120

Mutton

21

9

-

170

Rabbit

21

13

-

208

Poultry

18

20

-

268

Liver

18,3

3,2

5,2

103

Lungs

15,2

3,5

2

91,7

Beef heart

15

3

3

91

Bone meal

47,7

8,5

2,9

280

Milk

2,8

3,2

4,7

58

Cottage cheese (not fat)

18

0,6

1,5

86

Fish meal

55

3

-

252

Chicken eggs

12,7

11,5

0,7

157

Rye bread

8,8

1,4

73,4

323

White bread

7,9

1

48,5

226

Oat grain

11,9

5,8

65,4

345

Rice

7

0,6

77,2

322

Buckwheat grain

12,6

2,6

68

344

Fresh cabbage

1,8

-

5,4

28

Carrot

1,7

0,1

7

33

Beet

1,7

-

10

48

Lettuce

1,5

-

2,2

15

Spinach

2,9

-

2,3

22

Daily demand for dogs weighing 10 kg is (78h10) 780 kCal.
            Daily demand for dogs weighing 50 kg is (53h50) 2650 kCal.
            On increasing the physical and physiological loads on the body of an animal
    the need for energy grows from one and a half to two times. (See Tables 3-8)

Table 3. The approximate structure of the males diet (in percentage of daily energy needs)

Feed components

Rest period

Mating period

Beef

40

60 – 70

Grains

40

30 – 20

Vegetables

20

10

 Table 4.  Power consumption of the daily diet and the main components of the feed during periods of rest and mating. 

Feed components

Rest period.

Mating period.

and their daly

Body weight, kg

Body weight, kg

 

     

 

 

 

Power consumption

10

20

30

10

20

30

Power consumption, kCal

740

1240

1695

1110

1860

2540

Protein, g

40

80

120

56

112

168

Fat, g

18

36

54

20

40

55

Easily digestible

90

180

270

108

216

325

carbohydrates, g

Fiber, g

8

16

24

8

16

24

Vitamin A, ME

1100

2200

3300

1650

1470

4950

Vitamin D, ME

60

120

180

70

130

160

Vitamin E, mg

25

50

75

37

75

112

 Table 5. Estimated daily ration for male in periods of rest and mating (the calculation is given for a body weight 30 kg)

Feed components

Rest period

Mating period

Beef, g

350

640

Grains, g

260

320

Vegetables, g

250

400

Fat, g

54

55

Vitamin A, ME

3300

4950

Vitamin D, ME

180

180

Vitamin E, mg

50

112

Salt, g

5

5

 Table 6.  The qualitative composition and daily power consumption of the female ration weighing 25 kg at rest, in the first and second half of pregnancy.

Feed components

and their daly

Rest period

In the first

half of pregnancy

In the second

half of pregnancy

       

Power consumption, kCal

1460

1700

2600

Protein, g

60

98

110

Fat, g

25

27

30

Сarbohydrates, g

240

280

340

Fibre, g

10

13

16

Calcium, mg

3

4,5

6,5

Phosphorus, mg

2,5

3,7

5,5

Vitamin A, ME

2500

3250

4150

Vitamin D, ME

175

227

270

Vitamin E, mg

55

66

80

Table 7.  Comparative characteristics of mineral components in the diet of pregnant and lactating female weighing 25 kg on the recommendations of the German and Russian experts.

Physiological period

Calcium, g

Phosphorus, g

 

RUS

GER

RUS

GER

Rest period

6,6

1,625

5,5

1,35

1st half of pregnancy

10,0

3,25

8,0

2,70

2nd half of pregnancy

12,0

6,50

11,0

5,42

 Table 8. The qualitative composition and daily power consumption of the lactating females ration weighing 25 kg in the first-second and third-fourth weeks of lactation.

Feed components

First half of lactation

Second half of lactation

and their daly power consumption

   
     

Power consumption, kCal

2600

3900

Protein, g

110

160

Fat, g

40

50

Сarbohydrates, g

340

410

Fibre, g

16

19

Calcium, mg

6,5

7,5

Phosphorus, mg

5,5

6,2

Vitamin A, ME

4150

2800

Vitamin D, ME

270

210

Vitamin E, mg

80

14,5

The interchangeability of products is possible according to their energy and nutritional value. For example, 100 grams of meat are equal by nutritional value to 180 g of heart, 150 g of lung, 150 g of tripe, 200 g of intestines, 150 g of cottage cheese and 100 g of oats can replace 150 g of bread or 100 g of dried bread. Here are two examples of rations for a dog weighing 10 kg.
      A 10 kg dog needs 780 kCal. This energy need correspond to: 45 g protein, 15 g fat, 90 g carbohydrates, dietary fiber – 10 grams, calcium – 1.8 g, 1.2 g of phosphorus, vitamin A – 1100 ME, vitamin D – 75 ME per day. The following set of products corresponds to this composition :
The diet 1
Meat (beef) – 190 g
Oats – 120 g
Vegetables – 120 g
Bone meal – 8 g
Salt – 2 g
Multivitamins – 10 drops
      British experts recommend for a dog weighing 10 kg the other so-called standard set of products:
The diet 2
Meat (beef) – 250 g
Bread or cereals – 100 g
Bone meal – 1 tsp
Cod – liver oil or a multivitamin – a drop of

Note: I consider it necessary to remind that the calculation of the diet for your dog you should take into account its age, type of nervous system, physical and physiological loads, possible chronic diseases as well as the true weight of the animal (see part V).

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